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LEADERSHIP IS A PROCESS OF SOCIAL INFLUENCE, WHICH MAXIMISES THE EFFORTS OF OTHERS TOWARDS THE ACHIEVEMENT OF A SHARED GOAL.
Monday, December 31, 2012
Steve Blank, serial entrepreneur, Founder of E.piphany and Stanford consulting associate professor, says team building is an important skill for entrepreneurs.
Startups are about putting together an orchestra. It's not about playing a single instrument.
Friday, December 28, 2012
Thursday, December 27, 2012
Wednesday, December 26, 2012
Stanford University political science professor and former U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice endorses the way education in the fields of humanities and social sciences cultivates people’s writing abilities:
“Those of us who have been, for instance, in government—where a lot of my students want to end up—know that the well argued, well written two-pager [put] before the secretary of defense or the secretary of state can actually make a difference, let alone one before the president of the United States. It can make a difference in decision making.”
Tuesday, December 25, 2012
Monday, December 24, 2012
Venture capitalists have a rule of thumb - bet on the leader, not the idea.
Some people seem naturally high in charisma, but there are ingredients that can be cultivated: A genuine interest in people. Listening to their needs and concerns, and showing that you will help them achieve their goals. Treating people as though each is special and deserves attention. Remembering details about them.
In today's troubled world, entrepreneurship is sometimes treated as the new religion that will save the economy and build world peace. The analogy to religion is appropriate, because there's always an element of faith in innovation and entrepreneurship.
Charisma can be a decisive factor.
Friday, December 21, 2012
“If you hire people just because they can do a job, they’ll work for your money. But if you hire people who believe what you believe, they’ll work for you with blood and sweat and tears.” (Simon Sinek)
Simon Sinek has a simple but powerful model for inspirational leadership all starting with a golden circle and the question "Why?"
His examples include Apple, Martin Luther King, and the Wright brothers.
His examples include Apple, Martin Luther King, and the Wright brothers.
Thursday, December 20, 2012
Wednesday, December 19, 2012
Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg looks at why a smaller percentage of women than men reach the top of their professions -- and offers 3 powerful pieces of advice to women aiming for the C-suite.
Tuesday, December 18, 2012
As a start-up gets off the ground, it has a short-lived opportunity to decide how it wants to do business. With each new hire company culture becomes more entrenched and somewhere after two dozen employees, it tends to cement.
Establish a set of genuine values before your start-up gets too complex.
Articulate a coherent philosophy about who you are and how you will work. Also be clear about who you aren’t and what you won’t do. This will make decisions easier and ultimately improve results. Rather than analyzing each new decision afresh, you’ll have a common foundation from which to make them. If you don’t do this deliberately when your organisation is young, the culture will (often rigidly) form itself. Companies that do not appear to have strong core philosophies, or that abandon them, tend to wander.
Your philosophy is your corporate constitution and one of the most valuable pieces of IP you'll create.
Adapted from “Four Things to Get Right When Starting a Company” by Bruce Gibney and Ken Howery - http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2012/05/four_things_to_get_right_when.html
Monday, December 17, 2012
The Leadership Challenge, says the new crop of technology CEOs are changing the dynamics of corporate leadership.
Friday, December 14, 2012
Thursday, December 13, 2012
Wednesday, December 12, 2012
Tuesday, December 11, 2012
Monday, December 10, 2012
Friday, December 07, 2012
Thursday, December 06, 2012
Lessons on the importance of company culture and clear values:
Lesson 1: Hierarchy and respect are not mutually exclusive
You have to make sure you never confuse the hierarchy that you need for managing complexity with the respect that people deserve. Because that’s where a lot of organisations go off track, confusing respect and hierarchy, and thinking that low on hierarchy means low respect; high on the hierarchy means high respect. So hierarchy is a necessary evil of managing complexity, but it in no way has anything to do with respect that is owed an individual.
Lesson 2: Culture is how a company gets things done
For example, most companies in software get things done through people. So their machinery is people, and to put it in technology terms, people are the hardware and values are the operating system. So the culture starts with people with a common operating system around values and then, once you have that, you can build processes around how you actually get things done on top of that. But clarity around the hardware and the operating system is first and foremost, so it’s about people and values.
Lesson 3: A values-driven culture can be a powerful motivator
People generally want to belong to something of greater purpose that’s larger than they are. They’re just waiting for it to come along. And a culture around values is part of that. People say, ‘I want to be on that team, that club, because they believe in something and I actually believe in that, so I want to belong to that.’
Lesson 4: Values can (and must) provide a balance
Think about your values in pairs, and there is a tension or a balance between them. For example; listening and leadership; accountability and generosity; humility and audacity. You’ve got to have the humility to see the world as it is but have the audacity to know why you are trying to make it be different, to imagine the way it could be.
Lesson 5: Balanced values can give clarity to out-sized goals
This goes back to audacity and humility. You’ve got to be audacious enough to set goals that make you stretch and give you clarity of vision and purpose. But you have to have the humility to know that this work is hard, and that you might not get there. If you start off talking about all the reasons that you’re not going to get there, you’re not going to get there. And so it’s holding that balance of not being reckless, but also having a huge element of fearlessness.
What are important lessons you’ve learned about company culture and values?
Wednesday, December 05, 2012
“(Organisations) where employees strongly believed their managers followed through on promises and demonstrated the values they preached were substantially more profitable than those whose managers scored average or lower.”
Tony Simons, Cornell University, The Integrity Dividend
Tuesday, December 04, 2012
Monday, December 03, 2012
If you’re working harder than ever to build your business and still not making money, it may be because you’re trying to be someone you are not.
Try instead to be — and to brand — yourself.
Premium brands, such as Christian Louboutin with his signature red-lacquered-sole shoes, can charge so much more for their products because of branding and the same is true for people. You want to be a celebrity in your field so that people are asking for you by name. When you’re top of mind in your field, you get more referrals and it’s much easier to bring in business through referrals than through advertising, cold calling or submitting proposals.
How do you brand yourself?
Begin within. You have to start by understanding who you are before you can build a brand. Focus on the PITs — passions, interests and talents — that make you who you are. Take your examination all the way back to childhood and don’t forget to look at your personality, because it doesn’t change. Ask “What’s your red sole?” Thanks to a recent court decision, Christian Louboutin has an enforceable trademark on red-soled shoes. With a few exceptions, he is the only one who can sell red-soled shoes. You need to pinpoint what is unique about you — not something that applies only to a few other people, but something that applies only to you. For most of us, this is only going to be one or two specific things.
Own your name. Buy your space on the Internet — www.YourName.com — and work at making yourself the first full page of results that come up in a Google search of your name by blogging and engaging on a variety of social media networks. You also want to put pictures out there tagged with your name so that you have a full page of image results. Don’t forget to set up Google alerts for your name and its various misspellings, so you always know what people are saying about you.
Create your look. You need a consistent appearance for yourself and look for your brand. Think about colours, logos and fonts — and don’t forget to get a great head shot.
Post valuable content. Write blog posts and use social media to pass along useful content that relates to your brand. Be sure to tag everything with your name, so it all leads back to you.
Start something — something big. When you create something that’s valuable to people, you open the door to making real connections with them.
Speak in public. If you’re unsure or inexperienced, just start practicing.
Fire clients. The easiest and quickest way for you to create a breakthrough in your lifestyle is to fire those clients (or customers, or products, or product lines, or revenue streams or service offerings) that don’t produce. You can’t serve everyone, and you don’t want to be wasting your time on work that doesn’t pay off.
Raise prices. Yes, you’ll lose clients by raising prices, but you’ll have to work less to make the same amount of money, so you’ll be a winner. There are a variety of ways to raise prices, including bundling your service instead of charging by the hour, charging more for fast or last-minute service, and charging new clients more at the outset when you have the most leverage.
Prepare for haters. When you set out to establish and promote a strong brand, there will be haters, but there will be people who love you more and they’re the ones who count. Surround yourself with people who love and support you and who think you’re great!
Friday, November 30, 2012
Dan Mulhern is an expert on leadership and organizational development. He currently teaches courses in business and law at UC Berkeley. He is married to Gov. Jennifer Granholm, who served two terms as the governor of Michigan.
Here he talks about re-framing problems to find a better solution.
Here he talks about re-framing problems to find a better solution.
Thursday, November 29, 2012
Wednesday, November 28, 2012
Today, Cuddy is a professor and researcher at Harvard Business School, where she studies how nonverbal behaviour and snap judgments affect people from the classroom to the boardroom. And her training as a classical dancer (another skill she regained after her injury) is evident in her fascinating work on "power posing" -- how your body position influences others and even your own brain.
“Power posing” -- standing in a posture of confidence, even when we don’t feel confident -- can affect testosterone and cortisol levels in the brain, and might even have an impact on our chances for success.
Amy Cuddy’s research on body language reveals that we can change other people’s perceptions — and even our own body chemistry — simply by changing body positions.
Tuesday, November 27, 2012
"A high school dropout who's done a lot is better than a Stanford PhD who has done a similar amount, because he's driven further" with fewer credentials, says Khosla. He does think schooling really helped him, but mostly because he explored different disciplines rather than sticking with the same field.
An interesting sit-down with an interesting man that quickly skates on to other topics.
Monday, November 26, 2012
Gavin Esler, one of Britain's leading journalists and interviewers reveals what the stories that leaders tell can teach us about getting to the top - and staying there.
Great leaders have always understood the power of stories. Through the stories they tell, the most successful leaders educate, persuade and bring about change, but we rarely have the background knowledge to explore how they do so
Introducing the questions every leader must answer - and the elements that the best stories must contain - Esler explains how creating a leadership story can promote success at all levels, whether running for the United States presidency, or applying for a place at university.
Friday, November 23, 2012
Thursday, November 22, 2012
In her keynote at Womensphere’s Global Summit 2010, Shelly reflects upon what defines a great leader, and shares her insights from countless encounters with leaders of different styles and personalities.
Authenticity, Generosity, and Passion in Leadership - Shelly Lazarus from Womensphere on Vimeo.
Wednesday, November 21, 2012
If you are either announcing a change, or receiving direction on change, here are ten key questions that need to be clearly addressed:
1. What is the change?
2. What business issue(s) is (/are) driving this change?
3. Why should we care?
4. How will this change help address these issues?
5. What alternatives were considered? What were the pros and cons of each alternative?
6. Why must this change succeed?
7. Where does this change fit with other organisational priorities?
8. How will people emotionally respond to this change, and how should we acknowledge their feelings (the good or bad)?
9. What is the first action we need to take?
10. What are the milestones we will use to measure progress?
Take the time upfront to answer or get answers to these questions and you should see a significant return on your time invested.
Tuesday, November 20, 2012
Bad bosses don’t wake up in the morning and ask themselves: “How can I derail the corporate strategy today?”
Thunderbird research, based on surveys and interviews with more than 250 managers in 37 countries, shows that most ineffective leaders remain blissfully unaware of the harm they do to their organisations. Only 35% of respondents at high-performing companies said their leaders were doing a good job inspiring their teams to participate in strategic initiatives.
In this video, Thunderbird School of Global Management Professors Kannan Ramaswamy and Bill Youngdahl talk about the "hindrance trap" that catches many leaders.
For more, see: http://knowledgenetwork.thunderbird.edu/research/2012/08/24/when-bosses-do-harm-breaking-the-hindrance-trap/
Monday, November 19, 2012
Here he talks about energising a firm with mission & values.
A very interesting approach, albeit one which might be difficult to implement in some cultures!
Friday, November 16, 2012
DaVita CEO Kent Thiry discusses how being a consultant prepares you—or doesn't—for being a leader. Thiry spoke at the Stanford Graduate School of Business' View from the Top series.
Watch the full talk: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4p_d5jnCpqU&feature=plcp
Thursday, November 15, 2012
Excerpt of conversation between Daniel Goleman and George Kohlrieser on high performance leadership and relationship management - developing relationships and finding common bonds and goals.
Wednesday, November 14, 2012
Tuesday, November 13, 2012
Monday, November 12, 2012
Friday, November 09, 2012
Thursday, November 08, 2012
Human beings are learning animals, probably the most efficient learning machine ever to have walked the earth. From birth we are programmed to alter our behaviour depending on our desires and the feedback we are receiving from the environment. Our success as a species is largely down to how efficiently we learn and change our behaviour, depending on circumstances.
So, if the learning process is so natural and normal, why do we find it so hard sometimes to change our behaviour and learn new skills, especially new motor skills and movement patterns?
Something seems to have gone wrong with the way we learn, we seem to have got in the way of the natural process and made it much harder than it needs to be.
Rather than focus on the acquisition of the new skill as a starting point, perhaps it would be better if the first stage of the learning journey was to reconnect with and understand exactly how we go about acquiring and developing that new skill, whether it’s a golf swing, playing a musical instrument or tiling a bathroom.
In his books, ‘The Talent Code’, and ‘The Little Book ofTalent’, author Daniel Coyle goes into great detail into the learning process, and offers some great insights into how to get the most from your tuition and practice, and how to work with the natural learning process rather than fighting against it.
Here are a few of the key points he raises.
1. Repetition is the absolute Number 1 key to successful motor skill acquisition.
It takes about 3000 repetitions of a movement for the body to ‘get it’, 10000 reps for it to become a habit. That’s why a couple of hours a week down the driving range might be fun, but it isn’t really helping your golf swing to become a consistent, repeatable movement.
2. We learn most by failing.
You need to fail to learn. Instead of berating yourself and feeling angry and disappointed when you hit a bad shot, pause for a second. Open your mind. What actually happened there? What did it feel like? What was the difference in feeling between that and a good one? Your mistakes are the big opportunities. Make them count.
3. Break it down into small pieces.
When learning a large and complex movement such as the golf swing, it really helps to break it down into ‘chunks’. Work on small pieces of the movement, such as the takeaway, transition or impact, and focus tightly on that specific part of the movement, repeating it over and over until it is perfect. Then integrate it into the overall movement.
4. Little and often is better than feast and famine.
Sitting down once a week and saying “Right, I’m going to practice my grip for the next hour” very rarely works, for the simple reason that it’s dull, repetitive and unlikely to hold our attention for that length of time. Within a few minutes we’ll get distracted and any opportunity for learning will be limited. Much better to say “Right, I’m going to grip the club perfectly 20 times” then leave it an go and do something else, coming back after a while, then doing 20 more perfect reps.
5. Play games, make it fun!!
In the same way that a little and often is better than feast and famine, playing games rather than doing drills, is an excellent way to make practice engaging and enjoyable. Whether it’s competing with a friend to get it up and down, or challenging yourself to hole 20 consecutive 3 footers, or hit 10 drivers in the fairway, making practice into a game keeps it from becoming ‘work’. Most of us play golf for fun, and while we all want to improve, turning it into work is rarely the way forward.
Wednesday, November 07, 2012
Knowing the traits that forged the best U.S. presidents could have helped US voters grasp what's necessary to succeed in the Oval Office. Here are some interesting historical perspectives on the key qualities needed for success:
• Show vision. The best-rated presidents conveyed the direction they wanted to take the nation. Abraham Lincoln and George Washington, fixtures at the top of historical rankings, exuded that quality of setting a futuristic tone. Thus Washington shaped the presidency, and Lincoln reshaped the nation. Ronald) Reagan had it too. His concept that it was possible to win the Cold War was visionary. Almost no one else, in or out of government, thought there was any prospect of that.
• Have self-confidence. Washington was secure enough to recruit the greatest minds ever assembled in a Cabinet: future high-ranking Presidents, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, plus Alexander Hamilton. The first president knew he needed their help to shape the nation. Lincoln, a one-term congressman, had no problem deferring to or overruling his secretary of state, William Seward, who many thought was more qualified to be president.
• Be humble. It's not just that Lincoln had the ability to reject advice from more qualified people. It's that sometimes he listened to the advice, took it seriously and changed his mind. The 16th president could acknowledge that he very well might be wrong on issues. That attribute prevented Lincoln from making the catastrophic mistakes that someone who lacked humility might make. Washington and Lincoln were secure enough that they didn't feel they were the smartest people in the room. The same could be said of Harry Truman. The 33rd president called George Marshall the greatest man in the country and that if the former Army chief of staff could take the presidency, he'd resign in a minute.
• Character does matter. The top-ranked presidents who were most upstanding were Lincoln, Washington, Reagan, Truman and Dwight Eisenhower.
• Be diverse. Career politicians were less capable as president when rated against men who entered office with varied backgrounds. Some soldier-presidents — such as Washington, Eisenhower, U.S. Grant and Truman, with their sense of management were highly capable presidents. The ones who didn't plan on being president from the time they were little tended to excel! For example, political ambition came to Ronald Reagan late in life and Washington thought he'd die a soldier. As it turned out, the general won the Revolution and became the father of the USA.
Tuesday, November 06, 2012
Chip Conley is the founder of Joie de Vivre Hotels, California's largest boutique hotel collection, which includes more than 30 properties.
In this extract from a Stanford Graduate School of Business article he talks about the values that are important to him in business.
'You can see who’s most powerful in a society based on who has the tallest buildings. Two hundred years ago it was cathedrals. Fifty years ago it was a government building. Today, in most urban areas, the power rests with business and skyscrapers. Business is the most powerful influence in the world today. Fifty-four of the 100 most powerful entities in the world today are companies, not countries. That means it is that much more important that businesses take a conscious capitalist perspective to make a difference in the world. I’m a big believer in that on a global level. Businesses are finally asking, what is our ecological footprint? I also believe businesses need to look at their emotional fist print on their employees.
Our work is the most predominant use of our time. We spend more hours in our working life than our family life. Yet for many people their working life leaves an emotional fist print as if they're getting punched. It creates anxiety, anger, and a sense of being abused. That can have a contagious effect on their family, friends, and everybody around them. How do we measure that? Fifty years ago we had no idea we could measure our ecological footprint. How can we start measuring and managing what’s most important in life?'
Monday, November 05, 2012
To live intentionally, you must surface your values – not the ones you think you should have, but the ones you really do have.
Our values are our deeply held beliefs about what is right and good.
Values drive our behaviours, whether we are conscious of them or not.
Many people adopt the values articulated by their parents, organisations or institutions. But when they are not also conscious of their own personal values and the connection between their values and what they espouse, they are often only superficially committed to them. The values support a self-image of who they want to be, not necessarily who they are, and don’t hold up during times of stress. This is one of the reasons we see values breached so often – where we are surprised by the incongruous behaviour of someone we respected.
We are all values-driven. The question is whether it’s consciously or unconsciously.
When you are conscious of your values:
- You can challenge beliefs that no longer serve you.
- You can make intentional choices about your actions, rather than being driven unconsciously by them.
- You can be intentional about choosing relationships with people who share our values.
To surface your personal values, take time out for reflection. Identifying your values is not a mental activity – we care deeply about our values and become emotional when we connect with them.
Ask yourself questions like:
- What do I care deeply about?
- What would I stand in front of the bus to defend?
- What do my actions say about what I really value?
If you believe something is a value but it’s not guiding your behaviour, it’s not a real value … it’s simply a “good idea.”
Friday, November 02, 2012
Thursday, November 01, 2012
How do you keep score? How does your team keep score? What does winning look like? Are these questions you immediately have an answer for, or do they make you stop and think? Do you have an answer at all? We believe this is one of the most critical factors in human engagement. We think it’s true at home, at work and even where we play.
The best leaders help people understand what a win looks like and how to get there. Wins come in all shapes and sizes. Here are a few principles to consider as you help your team and yourself answer the important question: What constitutes a win?
A win must be quantifiable. How will you measure your progress? How will you know if you win? Unclear victories can demotivate even the strongest individual and team. As a leader, you may need to create milestones that can be measured and achieved to boost the energy of your team. A win defined as 10 new customers this month is better than we need more customers.
A win should require a stretch. Yes, there is such a thing as a “cheap win” – a victory that was achieved with little effort or thought. These are not the type we are advocating. These wins generally don’t help people grow or feel long-term satisfaction. A win that requires people’s best efforts are inherently motivating.
A win needs to matter. Small visions stir no man’s soul; neither do wins that don’t matter. You probably shouldn’t consider it a win if you show up for work. What will really contribute to your growth and/or the growth of your organisation? The answer is a candidate for a win. A Win: Raise revenues by 10% at year-end to avoid layoff.
A win should build confidence. What are the wins that will help you do this? Think about wins for individuals and the team. What is challenging but not insurmountable? What could serve as a stepping-stone to bigger wins?
A win should be achievable. Have you ever tried to accomplish the impossible? These situations are not win-win – they are lose-lose. The organisation and the individual both lose. If a win is achievable, it can motivate performance.
A win should ultimately serve the larger good. Most appropriate wins help the individual, but the best ones also help the team, the organisation or beyond. People long to be part of something bigger than themselves. As leaders, when we can help connect the dots between the immediate task and the larger good, people love it!
Think about the next 30 days; 90 days; 12 months – what does a win look like for you? What does a win look like for your team? Perhaps you’ll want to establish several. Don’t wait. The sooner you define them, the sooner you can pursue them. Enjoy the journey!
Wednesday, October 31, 2012
As leaders, our purpose should be to strive to make others better.
We walk our talk and lead by the example we put forth in our actions, thoughts and words in everything we do.
As leaders, we must strive to ensure to make others better by encouraging others to find their own voice, not holding them back because we fear their capability or wisdom. To make others better means we are holding ourselves to our word, our truth and being honourable in all that we do. Sometimes, we can make others better in spite of what we are doing; even if we are not the best ourselves, we influence others.
To be a better leader, we must be a leader who believes we are making others better in a positive way.
Tuesday, October 30, 2012
Here are some guidelines to cultivating leadership success across an organisation:
Make It a Priority: Acknowledge the risk, and put a formal action plan in place. Start by clearly defining the behaviours and skills which make a successful leader in your organisation.
Look Beyond Performance: Have a full picture of the leadership potential across your organisation and don’t restrict that view to only those you think are high potential. Do not confuse ambition with ability.
Replace Subjectivity with Objectivity: Gut instinct won’t do. Using scientific data, benchmark your people against competitor talent and identify leadership shortages to avoid succession risk.
Be Pragmatic & Proactive: Don’t wait for yearly review cycles, instead, employ development interventions at the point-of-pain with individual employees or across departments. This includes where and when to spend learning and development budgets throughout the company.
Cast a Wider Net: Take a global view of where your leadership talent is located and be prepared to use creative strategies to source talent across borders to fill leadership gaps.
Monday, October 29, 2012
Sunday, October 28, 2012
Friday, October 26, 2012
Jim Kouzes, along with his co-author Barry Posner, has written what is celebrated throughout the world as the definitive book on becoming a leader - The Leadership Challenge. Here he speaks with PBS host Barry Kibrick.
Thursday, October 25, 2012
Creating a durable, attractive message that can be distributed widely internally and externally is all important for any CEO today. Here are some ideas:
Start with a broad internal communications strategy. Different companies communicate in very different ways with their people. Some executives share their thinking primarily through voicemail or by e-mailing in the style of “note from the corner office.”
Never sugar-coat the news. Certain rules always apply when conducting meetings with employees. Always tell them the good, the bad, and the ugly. The “everything is great” approach should be avoided.
Always commend and salute your people. It’s easy when the numbers look very good, but even in years when overall results are not good, it’s important that somebody somewhere, is doing a great job that deserves to be highlighted and praised. It provides a measure of uplift even when the news tends to be sobering across the entire enterprise.
Try interactive. Try a new exercise to connect more effectively with employees. For example, a chat room conversation with the CEO. These interactive efforts are not only enjoyable but extremely useful for a CEO. You find things you can take away from each session. Employee ideas are genuinely helpful.
Make certain members of the senior team are on the same page. High quality executive communications isn’t just the responsibility of the CEO. Your senior leadership team to a man and woman must fully subscribe to the corporate mission and be able to articulate it effectively.
Keep it simple. Leonardo da Vinci said that “simplicity is the ultimate sophistication.” Who could argue?
Understand this well: not every plan you write down on the whiteboard is going to work. That’s a fact of business life, and no one is immune to the occasional misstep. A lot of people don’t understand that basic precept. They may believe that any sign of failure means the sun won’t be coming out tomorrow. But the basic lessons of communicating with those who work for you—delivering an easy-to-digest message, repeating it frequently as possible, sticking to the facts and the truth and not sugar-coating anything –provide an informational transparency that both illuminates the issues and consolidates support for strategic and tactical missions.
Wednesday, October 24, 2012
Tuesday, October 23, 2012
The late C.K. Prahalad was more than an academic; he was one of the foremost business thinkers of our time.
Coimbatore Krishnao -- CK -- Prahalad was born in the town of Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu. He studied physics at the University of Madras (now Chenai). He worked as a manager in a branch of the Union Carbide battery company, before continuing his education in the United States, and earning a PhD from Harvard. He has taught in India and America, eventually joining the faculty of the University of Michigan's Business School, where he holds the Harvey C Fruehauf chair of Business Administration.